Quantum computing – Schrodinger’s cats can calculate faster!

Quantum mechanics, which was born at the beginning of the 20th century and revolutionized our understanding of nature, implies that nature is far more counter intuitive and far richer than anyone could imagine before. In the 1980’s, physicists understood that this richness of nature can be used to construct new kind of computers that can outperform significantly any classical computer which ignores the quantum world. In the several decades that followed, physicists have made huge progress in learning how to design and control quantum systems, and have turned the once far away dream of a large scale quantum computer, into a realistic and closer than ever prospect.

What are the basic principles on which quantum computers work and how do quantum computers beat classical computers? How can quantum computers be built and what are the major challenges?